Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a directory query protocol based on X.500. It is a front end protocol that does not manage data. Its communication is in cleartext. Microsoft Active Directory Service (ADS) is based on LDAP that is often used for real-time communication. Network Basic Input Output system (NetBIOS) is a precursor to ADS developed by IBM. Network Information Service (NIS and NIS+) are directory services developed by Sun Microsystems. Common Internet File System/Server Message Block (CIFS/SMB) is a file-sharing protocol found on Windows systems. SMB was originally designed to run over NetBIOS, but can run over TCP/IP now. CIFS supports user-level and share-level security. Network File System (NFS) is a client/server file sharing system common to UNIX, though found on Linux and Windows systems, and developed by Sun Microsystems. Secure NFS (SNFS) provides secure authentication and encryption.
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